Unique animal world

On the territory of our Republic there are 677 representatives of vertebrates: 109 species of mammals, 432 species of birds, 58 species of amphibians and reptiles, 2 species of amphibians, 77 species of fish. Invertebrate species arc more than 15000. 106 species of vertebrates, 78 species of invertebrates are included in the Red Book of Uzbekistan.

The mountains of Central Asia form an independent zoogeographical province: Northwestern Hissor is at the crossroads of two of its sites: West-Tien Shan and the Tajik. In the North-West Hissor as well as in other parts of the mountains of Central Asia, fauna with poliarctic elements combined with ancient Mediterranean, Iran-Turanian and Central Asian as well as more southern Indo-Himalayan and East Asian ones.

The fauna of the reserve are poorly investigated, the vertebrate fauna of not less than the preliminary data has 268 species, of which 2 species of fish, 19 species of amphibians and reptiles, 215 species of birds, 32 species of mammals.

The study of invertebrates is in the early stages. According to the estimates of experts diversity of insects is estimated at least 3000 species. Currently, the reserve recorded 950 species of invertebrates, 143 families out of 20 teams.

Of the six specific invertebrate species, 7 species of birds, 1 species of fish and 10 species of mammals are included in the Red Book of Uzbekistan.

The fauna consists of 5 genera: bats party is represented by 7 species, 10 species of rodent family, (Sciurus) squirrel 2 species, 10 species of predators and of 2 species of cloven-hoofed animals.

Areas of distribution of encountered animal world of the reserve is Central Asian, European, Indo-Himalayan types. 4 species of mammals (the snow leopard, red marmot, Forest dormouse, greater horseshoe bat) and the class of birds (Black vulture) are included in the Red Book by the 1UCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). The following members of the family of mammals are enlisted in the Red Book of Uzbekistan - the snow leopard, Turkestan lynx, Central Asian, Tien Shan Brown Bear, white-haired long-eared bat. Lesser horseshoe bat of the family of bat and Amu-Darya trout from the family of fish are found in the reserve.

Now Snow Leopard - Ilvirs is on the verge of extinction as a locally distributed species. Habitat of this animal is in the middle and upper zones of the reserve, with a height of 2200-4300 meters in the north-western Hissor Mountains. It prefers rocky watersheds, slopes and in places where Siberian mountain goats and red marmots, snowcock, young partridges and wild boars inhabit.

There were 5-6 snow leopards when the reserve was organized, but nowadays their number increased to 22-24.

Turkestan lynx is a mosaic spread subspecies, which reduces vulnerably. The places of habitation for the lynx, in the reserve, are the middle and upper zones of Hissor Mountains. They are mostly found deciduous and juniper forests of the lower border of the Alpine meadows. At present 138 lynx live in the reserve.

Tien-Shan brown bear is vulnerable, mosaic spread subspecies. It can be met in the reserve in the middle and upper zones of the mountains, at altitudes of 1500-3500 meters above sea level. According to the estimation of the scientific department, in the year of the organization of the reserve (1983) the number of them amounted to about 35 individuals, and today their number has increased to 157-165 individuals.

The Central Asian otter is a disappearing locally distributed subspecies. It inhabits along rivers Oksuv, Tankhazdaryo, Kizilsuv, as well as the rivers' major tributaries flowing through the reserve, the number of them are 25-30 individuals.

The most numerous and widespread mammal in the reserve is the Siberian ibex, their number is 2950-3000 heads and boars 450-500 individuals.

Because of the high-altitudc location of Hissor mountains on the height of 2500-4300 meter above sea level except the Siberian mountain goats red marmot lives in the reserve. This species is endangered, as local subspecies, is listed in the IUCN Red Book. At present, according to the processed data of the scientific department of the reserve the number of them is about 3700-3800 individuals. They live in underground burrows in populations, length 10-12 meters and are active from March to August, and autumn-winter hibernation in September and before the early frosts.

One of the endemic species living in the juniper forests of the reserve at a height of 1700 meter above sea level is Tien-Shan souslik (Citellus relictus) and red pika, which is not found anywhere else.

Besides the above-mentioned family of mammal members in the reserve there are widely distributed species such as wolf, badger, stone marten, Turkestan rat and mice, only 6 species.

At the reserve one can find 215 species of birds: 110 species of sedentary locally common, 115 species of migratory. Species such as black vulture, bearded vulture, Snow Vulture, Griffon Vulture, Golden Eagle, Black Stork, Peregrine Falcon, Balaban listed in the Red Book of Uzbekistan. Black vulture, which is included in the IUCN Red Book, is close to the vulnerable, settled a mosaic spread of species within the reserve. Now their number is 39-40 individuals.

In the forest of the reserve there are juniper grosbeak, red-nodding tit, ringdove (Columba palumbus), juniper titmouse, common grosbeak, orioles, Shrike, Maina - The Indian Sparrow, Blackbird, Spotted Thrush, Southern Nightingale and others. The most numerous bird in the reserve is keklik (mountain partridge), their numbers are about 38 115 individuals.

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